Comparative life cycle assessment of lithium-ion batteries

Paper ID: 
Life cycle analysis (lca)
Published under CEST2023
Proceedings ISBN:
Proceedings ISSN: 2944-9820
Tournaviti M., Savva C., (Corresponding) Vlachokostas C.
The transportation sector is the second largest source of carbon emissions worldwide. In the process of achieving zero emissions, the electrification of the sector and the replacement of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) with electric vehicles (EVs) is being promoted. Batteries as the main component of EVs contribute significantly to their environmental impact along their life cycle. The high energy demand for battery production leads to higher carbon emissions to produce EVs than ICEVs. Additionally, during the charging of the batteries, the carbon emissions are directly linked to the carbon intensity of the electricity mix used. Currently, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are widely used as energy sources for EVs. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of three types of LIBs: lithium-ion phosphate, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide. The environmental impact of the entire life cycle of the batteries, from the extraction of raw materials to end-of-life (EoL) management, was assessed. The results were then compared for the three battery types. The influence of the electricity mix used to charge the batteries was also assessed, by applying a different scenario of electricity mix for power generation than the base case.
life cycle assessment; environmental impacts; electric vehicles; lithium-ion batteries